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Pinus mugo - mountain pine

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Mountain pine grows naturally in the Pyrenees, the Alps, the Carpathians and the northern Apennines, as well as in the mountains of the Balkans at elevations 1000-2200m, above the tree-line. It forms thick park-like woods or impassable thickets, which prevent erosion and avalanches and provide protection for many other life forms.

Because the areas of mountain pine growth are widely separated, the species has evolved over time to produce distinct local forms. Dwarf mountain pine (P. mugo subsp. mugo) is familiar in Finland as a multi-stemmed shrubby ornamental, native to the eastern and southern parts of the range. It has a number of named small dense forms and varieties. From the western parts of the range another local subspecies, P. mugo subsp. uncinata (also called mountain pine in English) can be found as a small single-trunk tree.

The shrubby mountain pines at Mustila were planted pre-war in near-natural surroundings at the edge of the Shoe Rock (Kenkäkallio), Helanterikallio and Nokkala’s Aarremäki (Treasure Hill), where they are still growing. A few old specimens can be found growing to the west of the Polish larches (Larix decidua var. polonica).